In the Sermon on the Mount, Christ told His disciples not to pursue “eye for eye,” but to love their enemies (Matthew 5:38-48).
Christ used four examples (injury, loss of clothing, loss of money, and being forced into labor) to illustrate how not to repay anyone “eye for eye” or evil for evil (Matthew 5:39-42).
Not taking revenge does not mean being weak or encouraging injustice. Christ did not retaliate as He was nailed on the cross. Yet, He challenged the high priest.
Furthermore, these behaviors are not for all relationships. For example, judges are entrusted to punish the wrong and reward the good (Romans 13:1, 4; Matthew 22:21). Similarly, the relationship of parents and children, compared to that of employers and employees, operate differently.
In the Sermon on the Mount, the behaviors focus more on personal interactions, where one should let the state punish. Ultimately, let God avenge and punish the one who is evil. God said, “It is mine to avenge; I will repay” (Leviticus 19:18, Romans 12:19).
Christ also taught His disciples to love their enemies (Matthew 5:43-48). In deeds, they should seek good for their enemies (Luke 6:27). In words, they should bless those who curse them (Luke 6:28). In prayers, they should pray for those who persecute them (Matthew 5:44). Otherwise, they would be no different from the wicked, who are good to those who are good to them also.
Christ wanted His disciples to imitate their heavenly Father, who loved them while they were His enemies (Matthew 5:48, Romans 5:10). Also, God gives sun and rain to the evil and the good (Matthew 5:44-45).
The Israelites were taught to love their neighbors and hate their enemies. But Christ wanted His disciples to be perfect, not to take revenge or repay evil for evil, but to overcome evil with good.
This is impossible without the grace of God. However, it helps to know we are blessed children of God; and to know we are no better than our enemies, who have needs and desires like ours.
Humans cannot achieve perfection in this life, but we can keep trying and asking God for forgiveness, just as Christ taught His disciples to pray (Matthew 6:12, 5:6).
Be merciful, just as our heavenly Father is merciful (Luke 6:36).
Summarized from the chapter, entitled, “Matthew 5:38-48 A Christian’s righteousness: non-retaliation and active love,” in “The Message of the Sermon on the Mount,” by John Stott.
登山宝训针对的是个人为人处世之道， 惩罚罪恶则应由政府来执行。 最终当让上帝来报仇，惩罚邪恶之人。上帝说 “伸冤在我，我必報應（利未记19:18，罗马书12:19）。”
基督也教导门徒爱自己的仇敌 （马太福音5：43-48）。在行动上为敌人的好处而行 （路加福音6:27）。在言语上祝福那些诅咒自己的人 （路加福音6:28）。在祷告中为那些逼迫自己的人祈祷 （马太福音5:44）。否则，他们就与邪恶之人无异，就是罪人也爱那爱他们的人。
基督要门徒效法天父—在世人还是仇敌的时候，祂就爱他们(马太福音5:48; 罗马书5：10）。上帝“叫日頭照好人，也照歹人；降雨給義人，也給不義的人 （马太福音5：44-45）”。
人在今生无法完美无缺，但是可以继续努力,祈求上帝的宽恕, 就像主耶稣教导门徒的祷告一样 （马太福音6:12；5：6）。